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Compared with the development of software system, the hardware design and its optimization of electronics have seen the practical problems such as long time consumption and high cost. However, in the actual design, engineers tend to pay more attention to the highly principled issues but what lead to the great influence on the operation of printed circuit boards is just some detailed errors that we have to correct over and over. It’s impossible for the perfect generation of PCBs but gradual optimization can be obtained. This passage will first list some problems on circuit design, PCB production and maintenance and then provide some easy to use methods to optimize¬†custom PCB¬†within limited cost.

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) form the backbone of all major electronics. These miraculous inventions pop up in nearly all computational electronics, including simpler devices like digital clocks, calculators etc. For the uninitiated, a PCB routes electrical signals through electronics, which satisfies the device’s electrical and mechanical circuit requirements. In short, PCBs tell the electricity where to go, bringing your electronics to life.


PCBs direct current around their surface through a network of copper pathways. The complex system of copper routes determines the unique role of each piece of PCB circuit board.

Before PCB design, circuit designers are recommended to get a tour of a PC board shop and communicate with fabricators face to face over their PCB manufacturing demands. It helps prevent designers making any unnecessary errors from getting transmitted during the design stage. However, as more companies outsource their PCB manufacturing inquiries to overseas suppliers, this becomes unpractical. On this account, we present this article in order to provide a proper understanding of PCB board manufacturing process steps. Hopefully it gives circuit designers and those new to PCB Industry a clear view on how printed circuit boards are manufactured, and avoid making those unnecessary errors.

PCB printing begins after designers output the PCB schematic files and manufacturers conduct a DFM check. Manufacturers use a special printer called a plotter, which makes photo films of the PCBs, to print circuit boards. Manufacturers will use the films to image the PCBs. Although it’s a laser printer, it isn’t a standard laser jet printer. Plotters use incredibly precise printing technology to provide a highly detailed film of the PCB design.
The final product results in a plastic sheet with a photo negative of the PCB in black ink. For the inner layers of PCB, black ink represents the conductive copper parts of the PCB. The remaining clear portion of the image denotes the areas of non-conductive material. The outer layers follow the opposite pattern: clear for copper, but black refers to the area that’ll be etched away. The plotter automatically develops the film, and the film is securely stored to prevent any unwanted contact.


Each layer of PCB and solder mask receives its own clear and black film sheet. In total, a two-layer PCB needs four sheets: two for the layers and two for the solder mask. Significantly, all the films have to correspond perfectly to each other. When used in harmony, they map out the PCB alignment.


To achieve perfect alignment of all films, registration holes should be punched through all films. The exactness of the hole occurs by adjusting the table on which the film sits. When the tiny calibrations of the table lead to an optimal match, the hole is punched. The holes will fit into the registration pins in the next step of the imaging process.
As you can see, a lot of work goes into printed circuit board manufacturing process. To guarantee PCBs be manufactured with your expected quality, performance and durability, you have to pick a Manufacturer who has high level of expertise and a focus on quality at each stage.


ESFORGE is one of Pakistan’s most experienced custom PCB production service supplier. With the idea that our success is measured by our clients’ success, we focus on the care and attention to detail that each PCB manufacturing step requires. We also offer vacuum packaging, weighing and delivery to make sure your PCB order arrives safely and free of damage. Up to now, we have printed circuit boards for companies of all sizes from over 80 countries, and we aim to deliver our manufactured PCBs to every corner of this world in the coming years.


We offer quickturn PCB prototype, mass PCB production and assembly services. Quotation is always fast and FREE.

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